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Europe sees second wave of new crown pneumonia epidemic vaccine research and development



This week, the cumulative number of confirmed cases of new coronary pneumonia worldwide exceeded 39 million. From the data point of view, the United States is still the most severely affected country in the world, but some European countries have recently seen a significant second wave of epidemics, with a record number of new cases in a single day, and most of the new infections are young people. At the same time, there are also some new challenges in vaccine trials and drug development against the new coronavirus.

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On October 10, the number of global new crown cases increased by 383,359, the largest increase in a single day since the outbreak.

△European epidemic data released by WHO

△European epidemic data released by WHO

The rebound of the epidemic in Europe is particularly obvious.

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Ryan, Executive Director of the WHO Emergency Program: What is worrying is that in France, the United Kingdom, Ireland and other countries, the hospitalization rate is rising, and the utilization rate of the intensive care unit is also rising.

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In France, all key indicators of the epidemic are worrying: the average daily number of new cases in the past week exceeded 20,000, and the number of new cases in a single day exceeded 30,000 on October 15, setting a new record.

According to data from the European Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in the past two weeks, 321.6 people were infected per 100,000 people in France. This ratio exceeds that of the United Kingdom and Spain and is still rising.

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French Prime Minister Castay bluntly stated that the “second wave” of the new crown epidemic has become a reality.

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According to the epidemic map released by the French health department, two-thirds of the entire France is in the “red zone” where the new crown virus is actively spreading, and major cities such as Paris and Marseille have entered the highest alert state for the epidemic.

At present, the occupancy rate of the intensive care unit in Paris is nearly 50%. It is estimated that 90% of the intensive care beds will be full by next week.

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Rousseau, Director of the Health Bureau of the Greater Paris Region: In Paris, people between the ages of 20 and 30 are infected with 800 per 100,000 people. We are aware that there are blind spots in epidemic prevention tracking, including private events and festivals.

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On October 14, French President Macron urgently announced that from the 17th, a curfew will be imposed in the severely affected Paris region and 8 other large cities.

The curfew is between 9 pm and 6 am the next day. It lasts for 4 weeks and involves approximately 18 million French citizens. Violators of the curfew will be fined 135 Euros.

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Paris taxi driver: Usually there will be traffic jams on the Champs Elysées on Saturday night, but there will be no people now and for the next three weeks.

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The situation in Britain, which faces the European continent across the sea, is not optimistic.

In the past few weeks, the number of new crown infections in the UK has continued to rise. According to data released by the BBC, as of October 13, the average daily number of new cases in the past seven days was 14,973, reaching the highest value in recent months.

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Prime Minister Johnson warned that the current epidemic situation in the UK is like “a passenger plane in danger.”

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British Prime Minister Johnson: We are entering a new critical phase in the fight against the new crown epidemic, because the number of confirmed cases has increased fourfold in the past four weeks, and it is again spreading among the elderly and vulnerable groups.

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At present, the number of patients admitted to hospitals with new coronary pneumonia in the UK has exceeded the number of hospitalizations in the UK when the city was closed in late March.

At Warrington Hospital, Bostock, a person infected with new coronary pneumonia, is being treated.

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Bostock, a patient with new coronary pneumonia: I have followed all the epidemic prevention advice, maintain social distancing, etc. People should not take the epidemic lightly.

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British medical expert Crowe: We are back to where we were earlier this year. We need to know the medical needs and hospital capacity every day of the week, but I think we are now more fully prepared than at the beginning of the epidemic.

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On October 12, the British government issued a “three-level new crown alert system” in England. According to the severity of the epidemic, it is divided into three levels: “medium”, “high” and “very high”, and imposed on areas with different alert levels Different prevention and control measures.

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British Secretary of Housing and Community Affairs Jenric: If you go to North Norfolk, the latest statistics show that the number of confirmed cases per 100,000 people is about 19; if you go to Manchester, it will be more than 500, so we should take a Localized epidemic prevention and control measures are correct. Because none of us want to see that nationwide (blockade) epidemic prevention measures will be implemented again.

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At present, the “medium” alert level is applicable to the current epidemic situation in most parts of England. The prevention and control measures mainly include: no more than 6 people gather in daily social occasions, and the operating hours of restaurants and bars cannot exceed 10 pm.

In Liverpool, northern England, there are approximately 600 confirmed cases per 100,000 people, and it is classified as a “very high” alert area.

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British Prime Minister Johnson: We have reached an agreement with the mayor of Liverpool Rotherham to close the gym, leisure center, betting shops and casinos.

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Local people: I came to work out early in the morning. I know it will be closed tomorrow, but I don’t know how long it will be closed.

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The crew of the movie “Batman” currently being filmed in Liverpool is also rushing to finish the local filming content.

In addition to Liverpool, the cities of Manchester and Newcastle in northern England also have higher levels of new crown alert. It is estimated that the population affected by strict restrictions may reach as many as 10 million.

Some local governments opposed this.

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The Mayor of Greater Manchester Burnham: We are unanimously opposed to the government’s three-level alert system, which is flawed and unfair. The government requires us to use people’s jobs, housing, business and a large part of our economic production as a bet. To test an epidemic prevention system that even experts don’t think will work.

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Whitty, Chief Medical Adviser to the British Government: I am confident that we will tide over the difficulties, but we need to find a balance between the two hazards, one is the harm to the society and the economy; the other is the harm to the health.

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On October 12, the British Chancellor of the Exchequer Sunak stated that employees of companies who had to suspend work due to epidemic prevention measures will receive government assistance, equivalent to two-thirds of their normal wages, and each person will not exceed £3,000 per month. It is RMB 26,000.

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Some analysts believe that part of people’s worries about the “second wave” of the epidemic stems from the trend of the “Spanish flu” a hundred years ago.

There have been three waves before and after the “Spanish Influenza” that broke out in 1918: the first wave occurred in the spring of 1918; the second wave in the fall of the same year was the deadliest, accounting for 90% of the total deaths of the Spanish flu; The “third wave” of the epidemic occurred around March 1919.

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On October 11, the cumulative number of confirmed cases of new coronary pneumonia in India exceeded 7 million.

According to data released by the World Health Organization on October 15, the number of newly confirmed cases in India reached 470,000 in the past 7 days, surpassing the 350,000 in the United States and ranking first in the world.

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At present, the cumulative number of confirmed cases in India and the United States are only a few hundred thousand. Many Indian medical experts predict that within a few weeks, India will surpass the United States as the country with the largest cumulative number of confirmed cases in the world.

This week, the cumulative number of deaths from new coronary pneumonia in India also exceeded 110,000, second only to the United States and Brazil.

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This is a cemetery on the outskirts of New Delhi.

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Cemetery staff: There are only a few tomb sites left, and we are going to carry out the fourth expansion.

CBS believes that India implemented strict blockade measures at the end of March, so that this large country with a population of nearly 1.4 billion did not have an obvious peak of the epidemic like Europe.

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However, after the “unblocking” in June, India’s epidemic curve continued to rise for a long time, and the growth rate of new cases did not slow down until mid-September.

On October 10, the Indian Ministry of Health issued a statement stating that the number of existing cases in India is on a downward trend, and currently there are less than 900,000 cases. The Indian Tribune explained that this means that only about one-eighth of all confirmed cases in India have not been cured.

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On October 15, cinemas in New Delhi and other places reopened after being closed for seven months.

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Audience: We feel good because there should be entertainment in our lives. There was no entertainment for a long time in the past.

But the medical community is worried about whether this slowdown in the epidemic can continue.

As the weather turns cooler and severe smog appears in major cities such as New Delhi, some families have begun to bring their own oxygen cylinders and pulse oximeters at home. They worry that the deteriorating air quality will make them more vulnerable to the new coronavirus.

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Chowdhury, Director of the Indian Center for Science and Environment: We will face a double challenge this winter. Air pollution has caused respiratory problems. There is also the new crown epidemic, and they will strike together.

On October 12, the technical director of WHO’s health emergency project, Kokhov, said that the death rate of people infected with the new crown virus is about 0.6%. Compared with the early stage of the epidemic, the recent death rate of new crown pneumonia in many countries has been The drop.

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Kokhov, Technical Director of WHO’s Health Emergency Program: But what is worrying is that even mild patients are beginning to have long-term effects. We are just now beginning to realize the long-term health effects of new coronary pneumonia, such as heart, brain, Lungs, mental health and recovery ability.

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There is also a new concern that comes from the “secondary infection” of the survivors.

On October 12, the “Lancet Infectious Diseases” magazine published a research report on the first confirmed case of “secondary infection” in the United States. The report shows that patients with new crowns may still be infected again after recovery, and the symptoms may be more severe .

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The “secondary infection” patient is a 25-year-old American male from Washa County, Nevada. He was infected with two different strains of the new coronavirus within 48 days.

The diagnosis was first confirmed in April this year, and subsequent tests were negative twice. At the end of May, symptoms of fever, headache, dizziness, cough, nausea, and diarrhea were reported. He was then hospitalized and tested positive for the virus. The patient has no known underlying disease, and the symptoms after re-infection with the new coronavirus were significantly worse than the first infection. During the hospitalization, he needed oxygen therapy and later recovered.

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“Secondary infection” or “herd immunity” is useless, the number of new coronavirus patients in the United States soars again

In September, a research report published in the New England Journal of Medicine also pointed out that the level of antibodies in patients with mild new coronary disease after recovery is halved almost every 36 days.

Many medical experts believe that the “secondary infection” cases show that the strategy of relying on passive anti-epidemic to achieve “herd immunity” does not work.

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WHO Director-General Ghebreyesus: In the history of public health, herd immunity has never been used as a strategy to respond to an outbreak, which is both scientific and ethical.

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At the same time, the development of vaccines against the new coronavirus is also continuing.

According to WHO statistics, as of October 15, a total of 42 vaccines under development worldwide have been approved to enter clinical trials.

However, the road to vaccine and drug development has not been smooth sailing.

On September 8, the British pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca temporarily suspended the new crown vaccine trial due to an adverse reaction of a volunteer participating in the trial vaccination.

On October 12, Johnson & Johnson of the United States halted the clinical trial of a new crown vaccine developed by its subsidiary Janssen Pharmaceuticals, because a vaccinated volunteer showed unexplainable symptoms.

On October 13, the US pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly announced that it would suspend a clinical trial of a new crown antibody therapy due to potential safety reasons.

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Preventive medicine expert Schaffner: It is a very good phenomenon to suspend the test and review the data. This shows that the monitoring system for vaccine safety is in place and operating; relevant clinical trials are being strictly reviewed. Situations like this will happen in any vaccine trial.

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On October 8, China signed an agreement with the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization to formally join the “New Coronary Pneumonia Vaccine Implementation Plan”, or COVAX for short. This news inspired global public opinion. Currently, more than 180 countries have joined the plan.

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Carol, Chairman of the Global Virus Genome Project in the United States: China’s participation in the global “New Coronary Pneumonia Vaccine Implementation Plan” is the best practice of the responsibility of a global leader, and it is also welcomed by the world.