CCTV News reported on October 11 that on July 1, 2019, the “Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on the Management of Domestic Waste” was formally implemented. This waste classification legislation, which was rated as “the strictest in history”, has been implemented for one year. Over the past year, Shanghai has achieved remarkable results in the front-end of garbage sorting. How will these different kinds of garbage that have been sorted hard be handled in the back-end? Where did the wet garbage go after the broken bag? How can the classified recyclables form an effective closed-loop collection and transportation? How to find a stable sales path?
Mandatory garbage classification has forced the front-end production method of common people’s garbage, but what is the situation at the back-end? How to connect the front and back ends so that the front-end efforts are not wasted? “News Investigation” continues to pay attention to the sorting and disposal of garbage in Shanghai.
Wet garbage has always been the number one problem plaguing urban garbage in China. Wet garbage in my country was first mixed with other garbage and disposed of by landfill, and leachate would pollute groundwater resources. Incineration is facing problems such as high cost and uneconomical. Therefore, in Chinese cities, the key to front-end domestic waste classification is dry and wet separation, and the focus of end-of-life disposal is how to use resources.
At present, Shanghai has built 8 large-scale wet garbage resource treatment facilities with a daily treatment capacity of more than 200 tons, and 2 projects are under construction. After the project is fully completed, all wet garbage in the entire Shanghai city will be treated as renewable resources.
Closed-loop establishment, no wet garbage out of Hongmei
The wet garbage in Hongmei Street has always been sent to 60 kilometers away, Shanghai’s largest Laogang waste disposal base for disposal. Until the beginning of the implementation of Shanghai’s local laws and regulations on garbage classification, in order to relieve the pressure of wet garbage disposal at the end of Shanghai, Hongmei Street boldly proposed the management goal of “wet garbage does not come out of Hongmei”. Since then, Hongmei Street wet garbage disposal has become one of the pilot projects in Shanghai to explore the localized disposal of wet garbage.
Huayue Homeland has nearly 10,000 residents and is the largest living community in Hongmei Street. Before the wet garbage disposal equipment was equipped, Huayue Homes’ current garbage warehouse often encountered complaints from nearby residents. Even though the environmental sanitation department increased the frequency of garbage removal in the community, Huayue Homes, which has nearly 10,000 residents, will inevitably face the fermentation of garbage and produce unpleasant odors as soon as the summer enters.
In order to eliminate secondary pollution problems such as the fermentation of wet garbage and the breeding of insect pests in large residential areas, Hongmei Street adopted the government to purchase services from enterprises after the start of garbage classification, and introduced this set of garbage disposal equipment from Tianwei Environmental Protection.
Wu Wenwei, Director of Shanghai Hongmei Street Greening and City Appearance Management Office:This machine can process a bucket of garbage every 15 minutes, so the garbage in this community can be processed in this machine in 8 hours a day, and the wet garbage will not ferment. The people have basically no complaints about the smell of garbage.
Since then, Huayue Home has become one of the pilot projects in Hongmei Street to explore the localized disposal of wet garbage. At the four garbage dumping points of Huayue Homes twice a day in the morning and evening, there will be four volunteers like this waiting by the trash can during the rush hour. Every day, the 28 cleaners in Huayue Homes need to take turns to conduct a second inspection of more than 70 barrels of nearly 3 tons of wet garbage in the community. Because only the higher the purity of wet garbage, the longer the service life of the machine.
Pu Yapeng, Secretary of the Party Working Committee of Hongmei Street, Xuhui District, Shanghai:The localized resource utilization of wet garbage is of great benefit to our local area, that is, it reduces the cleaning and transportation links and closely links the classification and disposal.
The first experience of environmental protection, the wet garbage “museum” around the citizens
The completion of the citizen’s environmental protection experience center covering an area of about 350 square meters allowed the Hongmei Street wet waste localization pilot project to formally form a new model of “one district, three points”. The Xuhui District Citizen Environmental Protection Experience Center is not only the only small wet garbage disposal science museum in Shanghai that is open to citizens, but also a centralized treatment station for all wet garbage in Hongmei Street.
Pu Yapeng, Secretary of the Party Working Committee of Hongmei Street, Xuhui District, Shanghai: You can’t look at the future with your inherent ideas. Garbage stations can be very tall, and garbage stations can also appear in the city center. If we think backward, we will force the development of technology and establish very strong constraints to force technological innovation.
Another more important function of the Xuhui District Citizen’s Environmental Protection Experience Center is the “wet garbage museum around the citizens”. On June 1st last year, after the Xuhui District Citizen Experience Center was officially opened to the public, it welcomed a batch of community residents. Let them see most intuitively how the wet garbage they throw away can be turned into treasure through technology and how to make the best use of it.
Wu Wenwei, Director of Shanghai Hongmei Street Greening and City Appearance Management Office:This garbage will be fed back to the community at the end, because it will become fertilizer. The greening of the community does not require chemical fertilizer, which is also a resource saving for the community.
Every day, 40-50 tons of fresh wet garbage in Hongmei Street is delivered here in time. After being crushed, dehydrated, and de-oiled, the garbage residue will be mixed into the bio-fertilizer, and then packed in bags and sent to a specific location. The agricultural waste is mixed for composting. In this way, the front-end wet garbage is processed in time, which avoids environmental pollution and reduces the secondary fermentation during transportation; secondly, the front-end reduction is realized after dehydration, and the transportation cost is greatly saved. Once the wet garbage in Hongmei Street turns into organic fertilizer, it can be directly tested in small-scale farms around Shanghai.
From the dinner table of the urban people, go back to the dinner table of the urban people
In our country, another major dilemma in the recycling of wet waste is that the outlet for products after wet waste disposal is very narrow. Through nearly a year of exploration, the pilot project of wet garbage in Hongmei Street has formed a recycling model of “from the dining table of the urban people and returning to the dining table of the urban people”. In order to ensure the quality of agricultural products, the government’s agricultural department will also conduct soil sampling tests on pilot farms from time to time.
In an interview at the farm, the villagers said that the high purity organic fertilizers currently on the market are not only difficult to buy, but also more expensive than chemical fertilizers. Once the land does not use pesticides and chemical fertilizers, it requires higher labor costs for daily maintenance such as weeding.
In today’s cities, organic agriculture means high input and slow output. In the year since Shanghai’s local regulations on waste classification have been implemented, the purity and total amount of wet waste in Hongmei Street have undergone qualitative changes. Starting from March 2020, the daily production of wet waste has stabilized. Starting from Hongmei Street’s attempt to compost with wet garbage, with the increase in the amount of wet garbage, 3,000 acres of farmland around Shanghai have now been freely used with the organic fertilizer from Hongmei Street’s wet garbage.
Can “closed loop mode” be copied?
Although the localized treatment system for wet waste explored by Hongmei Street has begun to take shape, it is a brand-new form, which is different from large-scale wet waste treatment plants invested and constructed by the government. Currently, there are no such small-scale wet waste disposal sites in the country. With the introduction of the corresponding overall environmental assessment standards, how to supervise the operation of the Xuhui District Citizen Environmental Protection Center now?
As a pilot project, the Xuhui District Citizens’ Environmental Protection Experience Center has been put into use, and the Environmental Protection Bureau of the Government and the Waste Management Office have adopted random inspections to conduct individual environmental assessments in accordance with the regulatory standards of local park enterprises.
After more than two years of running-in, the pilot project for localized disposal of wet garbage in Hongmei Street has basically taken shape. It has not only established a small-scale “closed-loop model” of wet garbage, but also brought citizens a more intuitive wet garbage science experience. But is such a pilot model reproducible in Shanghai and other cities in China? It takes time to give us the answer.
“Two networks integration” coordinated collection and transportation, “point, station, field” three-level network
Hangtianxinyuan is a medium-sized community with 550 residents in Hongmei Street. In July 2019, Hongmei Street’s requirements for recyclables in Hangtianxinyuan were upgraded to a sub-category based on the five classifications stipulated by Shanghai. Do a more forward-looking pilot exploration of recyclables in this community. At present, Aerospace Xinyuan is in the initial stage of the pilot, and for the time being, only the cleaners are required to make very similar recyclables.
At the beginning of the garbage sorting in Shanghai last year, the government effectively connected the front-end domestic waste sorting and transportation system with the end-of-recycling resource recycling system, forming a collection and transportation model of “two networks integration” coordinated operations, and relying on recycling companies to establish “points and stations” The three-level recycling network of ”, field” has created a huge recyclable system from collection and transportation to disposal of the government’s entire chain of supervision.
Shanghai Jilin Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd. is responsible for the on-site recycling of Hongmei Street. Jilin Environmental Protection, which was established at the end of 2016, is the “regular army” of the government recycling system. At present, Shanghai’s “two-network integration” system, like them There are 64 “regular forces”. In the communities of Hongmei Street, Shanghai’s “two-network integration” system will be held twice a week, like this, a special car will be sent to each community to purchase the recovered items collected by the cleaners, and the amount of recyclable objects will also vary according to the size of the community. , Make adjustments at any time. Since Hangtianxinyuan is a pilot community with a very high class of recyclables in Hongmei Street, the on-site recycling staff will examine ten different types of recyclables more strictly before weighing and registering them.
In order to encourage cleaners to finely classify recyclables at the front end, Hongmei Street requires communities to provide cleaners with temporary storage points for recyclables as much as possible according to local conditions. At the same time, it negotiates with each community property to reserve the basic salary of cleaners. On this basis, cleaners are also encouraged to sell recyclables to the “two-network integration” system to generate additional income. In order to help the pilot exploration of a very similar kind of Aerospace Xinyuan, the street funded the cleaning staff to provide hardware facilities such as shelves and sorting boxes.
Results at the front end, losses at the end
Since the introduction of waste sorting in Shanghai, as of June this year, the total amount of recyclables recycled in Shanghai reached 6813.7 tons per day, an increase of 71.1% year-on-year. For the front-end of garbage sorting, this is a very good result, but for the enterprises with the convergence of the two networks at the end, behind these fast-growing figures in the front-end are increasingly anxious corporate loss reports.
For companies in the Shanghai two-network integration system, the biggest difficulty at present is the high transportation cost. They not only have to penetrate the front-end districts for collection and transportation, but also deliver recyclables to different end-ends in different categories. For most low-value-added recyclables, most of the factories are not in Shanghai. The high cost of inter-provincial transportation makes it more difficult to protect the cost of recyclables with low value.
Formulate reasonable subsidies to cultivate high-tech
As early as March 21, 2018, the “Implementation Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Municipal Waste Recyclables Recycling System” issued by the General Office of the Shanghai Municipal People’s Government clearly stated that all districts should formulate low-value-added recyclables subsidies. Ensure that recyclables companies receive subsidies for low value-added recyclables.
In response to the current situation where companies continue to lose money in the current two-network integration system, the Shanghai Municipal Greening and City Appearance Administration also stated that the government is also optimizing the “two-network integration” system while calculating reasonable subsidies for low value-added recyclables. “Points, stations, and yards” have been deployed in the city, and relevant standards have been introduced; on the other hand, the establishment of a “two-network integration” system is also accelerating the establishment of a docking system for end-processing enterprises.
The Shanghai Municipal Government also expressed the hope that more high-tech environmental protection enterprises will settle in Shanghai in the future, cultivate a number of functional resource utilization projects, ensure that low value-added recyclables can be stable, and achieve full coverage recycling, full category utilization, and full use. Caliber statistics.